What are Monetary Policy Objectives-Frequently Asked Questions-Objectives of Monetary Policy

Objectives of Monetary Policy

Monetary policy is the action of the government to influence the quantity and pace of growth of a country’s money supply. It can be used to control major economic issues such as unemployment and inflation. The central bank uses a number of tools to achieve these aims and impact the economy as a whole, including interest rate changes, purchases and sales of government assets, and changes to the money supply. The central bank or an analogous regulatory organization is in charge of developing such policies. This topic outlines objectives of monetary policy which will assist you to achieve desired goals in your life.

The central bank uses the same tools it uses to implement monetary policy to manage lending. The central bank has a variety of tools at its disposal, including selective credit controls, open market operations, the bank rate, and variable cash reserve requirements. R. P. Kent coined the phrase “monetary policy” and defined it as “the management of the expansion and contraction of the volume of money in circulation for the explicit purpose of attaining a specific objective such as full employment.” Learn about goals of monetary policy subject in greater detail with this in-depth report.

Objectives of Monetary Policy

This monetary policy was implemented in 1934 in compliance with the RBI Act. In contrast to fiscal policy, which controls total levels of government spending and taxation, this strategy can have either an expansionary or contractionary effect. Expansionary policy refers to the policy established in reaction to a sudden growth in the total amount of money. Contractionary policy refers to efforts used to reduce the money supply or the rate of economic expansion. Given below are a few points on objectives of monetary policy that you should know before you think of money, investing, business and managing it.

Employed to Capacity

A sudden rise in unemployment during the Great Depression led to mass layoffs, leaving many unsupported. Recognized as harmful and resource-wasting, addressing this became a primary focus of monetary policy. Achieving “full employment” may compromise price and exchange rate stability. Everything else will work more smoothly if these two components get along.

According to the economist, achieving full employment demands a precise balance between investment and saving. While classical economists typically regard full employment to be a desirable economic state, the current economic environment does not allow for its achievement. As a result, full employment is critical for the nation’s economic progress. Individuals who were formerly employed but were then laid off are included in the unemployment rate calculation. After monetary policy has attained full employment, the focus must move from employment to price stability.

Consistency in Costs

Throughout the twentieth and twenty-first centuries, economists like Keynes and Crustar Cassels emphasized price stability as a primary goal of monetary policy. Maintaining consistent prices fosters consumer confidence, enabling smooth market transactions and equitable distribution of economic benefits. This stability contributes to community prosperity and well-being. However, a lack of price volatility hampers economic growth by reducing incentives for businesses to enhance production. The effectiveness of this approach diminishes when there’s a trade imbalance, leading to falling exports and rising imports. It’s crucial to distinguish “price stability” from “price rigidity” or “price stagnation.” Even a minor increase in inflationary pressures can significantly impact economic progress. Despite its low price, the product maintains an exceptionally high level of quality.

Reducing Volatility in the Economy

Monetary policy has a considerable impact on current and anticipated levels of economic activity. Economically developed countries use monetary policy to govern and supervise commercial operations, promoting economic stability. Nonetheless, it quickly loses all usefulness during times of widespread economic crisis. Achieving the objectives of monetary policy requires careful management of interest rates, money supply, and other financial tools to influence overall economic conditions.

Money’s Neutrality

Prominent economists such as Hayek, Wicksteed, and Robertson are leading the charge to create an unbiased money. They argue that the primary goal of monetary policy should be to keep interest rates steady throughout the economy. Monetary system fluctuations are the primary drivers of all economic oscillations. Certain people, known as “neutralists,” believe that any changes to a country’s currency will have a negative impact on its economy.
Advocates argue that neutral monetary policy can eliminate cyclical swings, trade cycles, inflation, and deflation from the economy. Furthermore, they do not anticipate economic deflation. Under this arrangement, a monetary body is responsible for maintaining currency stability. As a result, monetary neutrality must be the top priority of the organization in charge of monetary policy regulation. It denotes that the monetary value must be consistent throughout. As a result, no impact on corporate investment or consumer spending is expected.

Ensuring a Healthy Trade Balance

Monetary policy also seeks to preserve a favorable balance of payments. It was not made available to the general public until after the war. This monetary policy objective’s major goal is to solve the issue of insufficient foreign liquidity, which impedes international trade. The expansion of the payment balance deficit was thought to have stopped. Less developed countries’ efforts to reduce their reliance on imports usually jeopardize their economies and national development. This will immediately result in the payment balance being restored.

Expanding Economy

In recent years, economic leaders and experts all across the world have virtually exclusively addressed economic growth. Professor Meier defines “economic growth” as the gradual increase in a country’s real per capita income over a set period of time. This boosts tangible production, creating commodities to meet human wants and needs. Economic growth comprises the continual use of a country’s productive natural, human, and capital resources in order to maintain an upward trajectory in national income and per capita profits over time. This form of growth is commonly referred to as “green growth.”

Maintaining continual equilibrium between money supply and demand is a key purpose of monetary policy. The major goal of monetary policy is to promote steady and prolonged economic expansion, with one of its primary functions being to provide favorable conditions for investment and saving. The most effective strategy to achieve supply-demand equilibrium is to maximize monetary policy flexibility. Simply put, the monetary authority should decide whether to conduct a restrictive or non-restrictive monetary policy based on the needs of the increasing economy. In essence, a growing economy necessitates monetary policy capable of supporting the ever-increasing demand for cash. As a result, it is the responsibility of the governing body to guarantee that adequate finances are allocated.

Ultimate Vs Short-term Aims

The central bank’s key role is to control three macroeconomic variables: employment rate, inflation rate, and the annual growth rate of real GDP. To maximize economic expansion, a country’s central bank should influence these variables. However, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) currently faces challenges in achieving these goals, primarily due to insufficient regulatory monitoring by the government, resulting in a lack of current and relevant information. Efficient management of intermediate objectives, such as interest rates and various money supply measures (M1, M2, M3), is crucial before impacting larger economic goals. The RBI aims to reduce inflation by regulating currency supply. The interest rate structure, in contrast to liquid assets, can influence economic development by changing incentives for investing in physical capital.

Rising Prices and Joblessness

Central banks may intend to influence inflation rates through monetary policy. Economists consider controlled inflation helpful to the economy. In the event of excessive inflation, policymakers could use a contractionary policy. Monetary policy could influence the current unemployment rate. When policymakers enact an expansionary monetary policy, the unemployment rate typically falls. This is because an increase in the money supply benefits both a booming economy and an increased demand for labor. The primary objectives of monetary policy include fostering economic stability, controlling inflation, and promoting sustainable economic growth.

Balance of Payments Stability

Monetary policy began to stress the achievement of a stable balance of payments in the decades following World War II’s conclusion. The cause of this issue is that the increase of worldwide commerce has outpaced the expansion of global liquidity, creating a severe quandary. There was a widespread view that increasing the balance of payments deficit would impair the economy’s capacity to achieve its further goals. Reduced imports due to this trend severely impact the development efforts of many developing countries. As a result, the central bank works hard to keep trade surpluses and deficits balanced.

Balance of Payments

Historically, monetary authority has worked to preserve currency value stability. This was each nation’s primary preoccupation during the Gold Standard era. Regular rebalancing prevented the balance of payments from getting out of hand for an extended period. The use of this technique will correct the imbalance in the balance of payments and ensure currency exchange rate stability. It was once summarized as “Expand with incoming gold; Contract with outgoing gold.”

It is vital to remember that the exportation or importation of gold may result in an unfavorable balance of payments if currency exchange rate variations trigger such movements. Stable exchange rates are thus a vital component of the international trade infrastructure. This supports the assumption that the primary goal of monetary policy is to maintain the country’s external balance stability. In other words, they should make an attempt to eliminate the negative factors that contribute to currency rate volatility.


In what Ways does Monetary Policy Guarantee Steady Prices?

Monetary policy refers to the activities done by the central bank to stimulate the economy by increasing the money supply. An rise in the amount of currency in circulation promotes spending, adding to an increase in demand and overall expenditures. If this happened, the economy would be helped out of a slump and the deflationary spiral would be stopped.

Do Changes in Monetary Policy Result in Higher Prices?

Monetary policy is the preferred anti-cyclical instrument in most cases. The execution of this countercyclical policy would result in the anticipated increase in output and employment. However, due to the commensurate increase in the money supply, it would also result in an increase in prices.

In what Time Frame do Monetary Policy Changes Become Apparent in the Economy?

Monetary policy changes have a delayed effect on inflation and economic activity because businesses and individuals need time to adjust their activities to the new conditions. The full implications of monetary policy are anticipated to become apparent within one to two years.


In summary, a country’s monetary policy governs the money supply (to suppress inflation), the interest rate on short-term borrowing (such as when banks lend to one another to meet immediate needs), and the maintenance of stable prices and public confidence in the currency’s value. We hope this guide, in which we discussed objectives of monetary policy, was informative and beneficial for you.

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